The numbers of orphans and vulnerable children are now overwhelming and have drawn a lot of concern, not only in Tanzania, but also elsewhere in Africa and World over. Traditionally, the extended family has been often the cares and supporter of the orphans however most of them are poor and there seems to be increasing evidence of a breakdown in this structure as an adequate safety net for vulnerable families. The result of this is not only the economic development of the care givers that is being negatively affected, but also the social, cultural, and psychological aspects of human life.The limited availability of support and intervention by government, NGOs and community aiming at elderly people caring the OVC has reduced the capacity of the elders to care and support the OVC such that in turn place children at risk of run away and join street children, drug or substance abuse, truancy and drop out of the school, self-exploitation, criminal behaviour, child labor, and sex abuse. Not only the direct effects on the children but also the absence of parental care, isolation from emotional connection and support along side the stigma and exclusion, OVC and their older carer experience grief and possible confusion following the loss of their parents and children.
2.0 Kinondoni Municipal Council Profiles:
Kinondoni Municipal is within the city of Dar Es Salaam. The Municipality is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the North East, Ilala Municipal to the South, Bagamoyo District to the North, Kibaha District to the West and Kisarawe District to the South West. The municipality is well linked by roads and other communication networks to the rest of the city and other parts of the country. Major road links are: - Morogoro Road, Bagamoyo Road, Kawawa Road, and Mandela Road and, Sam Nujoma Road. Kinondoni Municipal has four (4) divisions namely: Magomeni, Kinondoni, Kibamba and Kawe. These divisions are then divided into twenty seven (27) wards, which in turn are sub divided into sub wards commonly known as Mtaa (singular) or Mitaa (plural). There are 127 Mitaa. According to the 2002 Census, the Kinondoni Municipality has a population of 1,088,867 people with a growth rate of 4.1%. The rapid population increase is influenced by both natural causes and immigration (birth rates and net immigration rates respectively). The Municipality has an area of 531KM2 and the population density is estimated at 2051 persons per square kilometre. Employment and Economic ActivitiesIt is estimated that 360,000 residents of Kinondoni Municipality are employed in both private and public sectors. Out of these, 95% are employed in the private sector while the rest 5% are employed in the public sector. A working force of 200,000 people is self-employed. The majority of the residents are involved in petty business, fisheries, livestock keeping and agriculture including horticulture. Only 3% of the working force is engaged in subsistence agriculture in the peri-urban areas. There are no big farms but small plots ranging from 2.5 to 6 acres. Others make small gardens around their houses in which various vegetables and root crops like cassava and sweet potatoes.
2.1 MWANANYAMALA WARD PROFILE
Mwananyamala ward is one of the twenty seven wards in Kinondoni district Dare salaam located on the west of the Indian Ocean Coastline bordering with the wards of Makumbusho; Tandale; Magomeni,Msasani; Kijitonyama and Manzese.Mwananyamala ward is consisting of six streets that include: Msisiri A, Msisiri B; Mwinjuma; Kambawa; Kopa; and Bwawani. Among the six streets three are surveyed, these are Msisiri A, Msisiri B, and Bwawani. The other three are un-surveyed one those are Kambawa, Kopa and Mwinjuma where houses are squatters and densely populated which most of them are in informal settlements that owners do not have land tenure
2.1.1 Leadership and administrative;
The ward leadership and administrative is divided into three levels.lst level: Ward Development Committee that is composed of seven departmental committees led by the
1st level Ward Executive officer in collaboration with a councillor
2nd level: Street Government- led by the Street (Mtaa) Executive Officer
3rd level the owest level- the Ten cell leadership- Balozi
Mwananyamala ward have a typical coastal equatorial climate that is characterized by being hot and humid with small seasonal and daily variations in temperature. It is generally hot and humid throughout the year with an average temperature of 290C .The hottest season is from October to March while it is relatively cool between May and August with temperature around 250C. There are two rain seasons: - short rain from October to December and long rain season between March and May. The average annual rainfall is 1300mm. Humidity is around 96% in the mornings and 67% in the afternoons. The climate is also influenced by the Southwest monsoon winds from April to October and Northeast monsoon winds between November and March. (Source Kinondoni profile)
Mwananyamala ward is occupied mostly with the indigenous coastal region tribes These includes: Wakwere, Zaramo, Ndengereko and other tribes who have migrated to the ward from all over the country caused by rural urban migration. The rapid population increase is influenced by both natural causes and immigration (birth rates and net immigration rates respectively). The ward has 10643 households with an average 4.2 people per house that are living in 4323 houses. (2002 census)
2.1.4 Employment and Economic Activities:
It is estimated that 30% of residents in Mwananyamala ward are employed in both the private and public sector. Another 30% is self-employed through various activities ie carpentry, garage, metal work and welding tailoring and small garden including horticulture. The majority of the residents are involved in petty business, of food vendors, selling vegetable and fruits, second hand clothes etc. There are no big farms but small plots for gardening around their houses in which various vegetables for family food and the surplus for generating income. The other proportion of population is not employed mostly spent time at corners called vijiwe/ camps and commuter buses callers’ wapiga debe (source ward office)
The ward has four Government Primary schools and one private owned primary school as summarized below:
SNO SCHOOL BOYS GIRL TOTAL
1 Mwongozo 560 554 11142
2 Kinondoni 570 535 11053
3 Msisiri A 468 650 11184
4 Msisiri B 553 495 10485
5 Answar 230 105 335
Total 2381 2339 47202.
1.6 Health service:
Mwananyamala ward population is served by one government district hospital which also serves the whole Kinondoni District; seventeen (17) dispensaries; one (1) laboratory and fifty two (52) pharmacies both of them privately owned.
Safe and clean water:
The main source of water for Mwananyamala residents belong to Dar Es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority (DAWASA), which contributes 80% of water being consumed daily and the rest 20% is contributed by 3 deep wells and rain harvested water.2.1.7 Security:
Security matters Mwananyamala ward is served by three (3) police post assisted by ward militia and community based traditional security system called sungusungu that involve all community members.
3.0 Statement of the problem
3.1 Extent of the problem:
In 2003 it was reported that there were 43 million orphans in sub-Saharan Africa, which is 12.3 per cent of all children. Twelve million of these are orphaned due to AIDS. (Children on the Brink 2004, UNAIDS/UNICEF/USAID) The situation in Tanzania is very similar as it is estimated to have orphans up to 2.5 million (14 per cent of all children in Tanzania) and the number of orphans is projected to increase and by 2010 to reach up to 4.2 million. The results of the participatory study that was conducted in Mwananyamala ward in Kinondoni Municipal revealed that there is a total of three hundreds and seventy five (375) orphans of which two hundreds and fifty five equivalent to 68% of all orphans in Mwananyamala ward live with their grandfathers and grandmotherAmong the causes and contributing factors of high number of orphans in Mwananyamala ward is as follows: 60 % parents died due to HIV/ AIDS; 20% early pregnancy among girls and 20% divorce among familiesTraditionally, the extended family has often supported orphans. But as the numbers of orphans are now overwhelming and rising, and as most extended families themselves are poor there seems to be increasing evidence of a breakdown in this structure as an adequate safety net for vulnerable families.Recent quantitative analysis of data from 27 sub-Saharan African countries showed that one third of all households are headed by older people. Over 60 per cent of orphaned children live in grandparent-headed households in Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, and over 50 per cent in Botswana, Malawi and Tanzania. (Help-Age International 2004)In Tanzania 4 percent of children who have lost both parents are living in a household headed by a person over the age of 55 and as the HIV and AIDS epidemic advances, the number of children living with grandparents is increasing in relation to those living with other relatives. Between 1992 and 2000 the proportion of orphaned children living in a grandparent-headed household increased from 45 to 53 per cent, compared to a reduction of those living with other relatives from 40 to 31 per cent. (Roeland Monasch, March 2004)The study by Rapid Appraisal Analysis and Action Planning (RAAAP) (2004) conducted in Tanzania revealed that 53% of all orphaned children in Tanzania are cared for by their elderly grandparents.The results of the participatory study that was conducted in Mwananyamala ward in Kinondoni Municipal revealed that there is a total of three hundreds and seventy five (375) orphans of which two hundreds and fifty five equivalent to 68% of all orphans in Mwananyamala ward live with their grandfathers and grandmother.The life condition of elderly people caring the orphans is not only the economic development problems but also the social, cultural, and psychosocial aspects of the elderly people and the children life. The lives of many older people in Tanzania which is the same phenomena in Mwananyamala ward are characterized by high degree of poverty, ill health, poor housing inadequate agricultural inputs, entrepreneurship skills, access to credit services and capital for businesses creation hence leading to reduced quantity and quality of food, lack of purchasing power, unemployment and discrimination among the elderly people.The causes of poor life condition for elderly people in Mwananyamala and other parts of Tanzania is that most of them have no means of income generating activities. Both of them have retired from work or have no more energy to participate in income generating activities. Worse enough are routinely excluded from obtaining the credit service they need to start small business because of age discrimination and lack of assets to offer as security they are deigned to access any loans for business creation and have no premises for business.
3.2 Consequences of poor life condition for elderly people caring orphans:
The consequence of this depletes the elderly people resources, and often jeopardizes the livelihoods of the elders and the orphans and vulnerable children they care.The limited availability of support and intervention by government, NGOs and community aiming at elderly people caring the OVC has reduced the capacity of the elders to care and support the OVC such that in turn place children at risk of run away and join street children, drug or substance abuse, truancy and drop out of the school, self-exploitation, criminal behaviour, child labor, and sex abuse.Further more not only the direct effects on the children but also the absence of parental care, isolation from emotional connection and support along side the stigma and exclusion, OVC and their older carer experience grief and possible confusion following the loss of their parents and children.
3.3 What need to be changed?
Older people often play a role in comforting orphans on death of their parents and in providing support and guidance yet the older themselves are under pressure, with psychological problems of their own following the death of their children- grief, loss, anger, fear and the worry of bringing up orphaned children hence impacts and affect the whole community of Tanzania at present and in future. Despite their immense social contribution in caring the orphans neither by the Governments nor the international organizations and the majority of the NGOs, CBOs and community pay much attention to elderly people, in reality elderly people receive little support and acknowledgment.A broad range of interventions are unfortunately mostly aiming at supporting the OVC in isolation and doing very little or nothing to the elderly people caring the OVC in terms of material, physical, emotional, and social needs for the wellbeing of the children they care. The work that is done by the elderly people is a crucial contribution around child care and an investment into the next generation, but their labours are mostly taken for granted. Therefore there is a need to address the problems that elders are facing by enhancing their capacity of socially, economically and emotionally to enable them to achieve an adequate level of caring the orphans for children’s survival, development and wellbeing.
3.4 Responses by international and regional institutions in the supporting the elderly people:
The international, Regional and National community has made a number of commitments to fighting HIV and AIDS, OVC and to reduce poverty as well as to mainstream older people in various programs, however, so far little has been done by national governments or the international community to put in practice the policies, programmes and resources to act upon these commitments. The commitments that have been made include the following:
Firstly, the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001) commits member states to ‘ensure the development and implementation of multi-sectoral national strategies that address gender and age-based dimensions of the epidemic and strengthen family and community-based care. It further commits governments to review the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS at all levels of society, especially on women and the elderly, and particularly in their role as caregivers.Secondly, the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (2002) commits all UN member states to the improvement in the assessment of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health of older persons infected and for those caring for infected or surviving family members (orphans) to the provision of adequate information, training, treatment, medical care and support to older persons and to ‘introduce policies to provide support, health care and loans to older caregivers to assist them in meeting the needs of children and grandchildren in accordance with the Millennium Declaration.’Thirdly, the Africa Union (AU) Policy Framework and Plan of Action on Ageing (2002) commits AU member states to ‘protect the rights and needs of older people affected by HIV/AIDS and other epidemics, including the recognition that older people are sexually active and at risk group and that they are the major providers of care for those who are sick and for orphaned grandchildren.
3.5 Tanzania Government response:
The Government of Tanzania is a signatory to all these international commitments and it is also bound by national policies such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy, the National Policy on HIV/AIDS and the National Ageing Policy.The Tanzania’s National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP, 2005/06-2009/10) mainstreams vulnerable groups including older people, children, women and people living with AIDS and proposes a range of initiatives to deal with HIV prevention, including the care and support of those affected. It also aims at mitigating the effects of HIV/AIDS through the development of social protection measures such as pensions/ cash transfer for older people and social safety nets for children and other vulnerable group including orphans.Furthermore, in October 2003 the Tanzanian Government launched the National Ageing Policy, which recognizes older people as a resource in development, and their rights within the framework of Tanzania’s constitution. The policy commits the Tanzanian Government to, amongst other things, review costs and access to quality health care for older people, raise awareness of their needs, counsel and train older people in the care of people living withAIDS, and ensure that they participate in the planning and implementation of development plans. Furthermore the National Ageing Policy seeks to establish a credit fund for older people and encourage district councils and civil society to build the capacity of older people to engage in income generation activities and access to cash transfer. This policy context provides a conducive and enabling environment in which to respond to the needs of older people and support their contributions to society hence that they are able to support the Orphans and vulnerable children. However, the challenge lies in the implementation of policies and international commitments. The development of key strategies at national and local level, financing mechanisms and the allocation of responsibilities are critical to ensure that policy initiatives are turned into action at the local level where it can really make a difference to the lives of poor and vulnerable old people hence support the orphans and vulnerable children.
3.6 Non Government Organization response:
There are few NGOs that have programs for elderly people in Tanzania these include: Help Age International. This is an organization that its mission is to work with and for disadvantaged older people in Tanzania to achieve a lasting improvement in the quality of their lives and to realize their rights, to participate in civil society and to access to health services. Help Age International Tanzania has been seeking to create a wider understanding and recognition of ageing issues with civil society and the Government by supporting a strong movement of older people, strengthening ageing organizations, facilitating interaction with Government and mainstreaming ageing into the development agenda.Among the intervention strategies includes:Addressing the needs of older people at the community levelResponding to the needs of older people in EmergencieAddressing the nutritional situation of older peopleAddressing the violation of older people’s rightResponding to the impact of HIV/AIDS on older people and their familiesDespite the progress made by Help Age International and others in the conduct of policy- or practice-focused on ageing and older people in Tanzania, huge gaps still remain compared to the challenges facing older people and ageing populations in Tanzania. These includes: Lack of information and understanding the key areas of concern around the number of older people in Tanzania; The situation of older people and the nature of family structures; The HIV/AIDS impact on older people and that older people taking care of families and orphans and analysis and sound understanding of the social, psychological, physical and economic effects.
3.7 How does the problem relate to the project host CBO?
MWAWODE is a non-for profit organization established in 2000 with a mission to provide supportive services and empower its members and marginalized members (women, elderly and orphans and vulnerable children) of community to be able to lead better lives economically, socially and culturally. MWAWODE is in the initial stage and have managed to support only ten elders living with orphans by supporting them with small loans amounting to fifty thousand shillings each. This support has helped the elderly people to support the orphans by food, clothes and scholastic material.However, issues and needs of elderly people caring orphans were not properly coordinated though there were some ongoing OVCs activities. The Mwananyamala Ward community participatory needs assessment and the prioritization process came out with a need of enhancing the social economic and parenting skills to elderly people in particular, as a crucial thing in care and support for OVCs in the community. In this case, MWAWODE shall work to support the elderly people caring OVC by conducting a training in designing, managing micro project and parenting skills, as well as mobilizing resources and small loans to support the elderly people for income generating activities.
4.0 PROJECT TITTLE AND PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION:
CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT ON SOCIAL – ECONOMIC AND PARENTING SKILLSFOR ELDERLY PEOPLE CARING FOR ORPHANS AND VULNEARBLE CHILDREN
4.1 Target group
The target group for the project are into two categories that of direct and indirect. The direct one is the elderly people caring the orphans and the indirect one are the orphans cared by the elderly. The elderly people will benefit from the project by being exposed and trained in micro-project designing and management. In addition to that elderly people will be facilitated to access small loans as capital for income generation. Elderly people will participate in the process of initiating and managing the micro economic project for their income generation. This will result to the enhancement of social - economic capacity. Funds generated from the micro project will enable the elderly people to support themselves and orphans cared by them to purchase food, clothes, and scholastic material. Orphans will be able to have food, clothes and attend schools through the support and care from their grand parents.
Stakeholders are the major players, groups or institutions of the project these can be direct and indirect stakeholders. These will include: the elderly people; the orphans MWAWODE CBO leaders and members; Mwananyamala Ward Development Committee; Kinondoni Municipal Council; Community Development Officer; Hep Age International Tanzania, and the Financial Institution FINCA, PRIDE AFRICA.
5.1 Project Vision:
Enhanced & capacitated community members in Mwananyamala especially the marginalized, poor members of the community children and the elderly to be free from Poverty, illiteracy, and diseases such as HIV and AIDS
5.2 Mission statement:
To provide supportive services and empower community members especially marginalized members of community to be able to lead better lives economically, socially and culturally.
5.3 Project goal:
To enhance the capacity of elderly people caring OVC, socially, economically and emotionally for the wellbeing of Orphans and vulnerable Children in Mwananyamala
5.5 Specific objectives
- Enhanced capacity of the elderly people caring OVC in designing, initiating, and managing micro-projects for income generating in Mwananyamala Kinondoni Municipal Council by the end year 2008.
- Elderly people caring orphans and vulnerable children able to access credit services ( small loans) to start income generating activities in Mwananyamala Ward by the year end 2008
- Enhanced capacity of elderly people in supporting OVC with Psychosocial Care and Support by the year end 2008
5.6 MWAWODE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION TO RUN THE PROJECT:
Mwananyamala Women Development (MWAWODE) a registered community based organization with registration number 1548 of 2nd September 2005. MWAWODE headquarters is at Mwananyamala “A” Plot no 14 Block 25 B Msisisiri Street near Roman Catholic Church; Kinondoni District with Telephone Number: 0754599249; EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
MWAWODE seeks to develop & capacitated MWAWODE, members and community around especially the marginalized, poor members of the community children and the elderly to be free from Poverty, illiteracy, diseases such as HIV and AIDS and advocate the basic rights for the children, women and elderly people are respected
MWAWODE MISSION STATEMENT:
With support from members and stakeholders, MWAWODE will provide supportive services and empower its members and marginalized members of community to be able to lead better lives economically, socially and culturally.
To contribute to the improvement of the living standard of its members as well as that of the marginalized community members, especially women old people and children of Mwananyamala ward.MWAWODE as a project host organization MWAWODE shall support elderly people caring OVC in facilitating and conducting training in designing, managing micro project and parenting skills as well as mobilizing resources and small loans to support the elderly people for income generating activities.
5.7 Management of the Project:
MWAWODE community based organization will be specifically responsible for project management and monitoring. This will include the project spending against the approved budget and monitoring on the overall implementation process. To achieve the intended objectives the structure of MWAWODE organization structure made up of sections with specific functions will be applied. These include the project coordinator, MWAWODE chairperson, secretary and members.
The Coordinator of MWAWODE and the Chairperson, as per MWAWODE standard operating procedures, will ratify all expenditure proposed by the Coordinator against the budget line.
MWAWODE will be involved in a number of social development activities with the elderly people. Activities are intending to enhance the social economic capacity of the elderly people caring orphans These will include: training on initiating and managing micro-projects for income generating through self-employment in the community; training on parenting to be provided to elderly as most of them retired a long time ago caring children and especially orphans who have some psychological problems due to the death of their parents; facilitating elderly people to access small loans to start income generating activities; monitoring and evaluation of the project implementation.
6.0 MONITORING AND EVALUATION:
Monitoring and EvaluationMWAWODE will facilitate the participatory monitoring and evaluation that will involve the stakeholders of the project including the elderly people. The monitoring will be conducted from the beginning of the project up to the end of the project. This will involve monitoring resource utilization, activity conducted these include the training workshops, facilitation of loans. Evaluation will be conducted at the middle of the project and the final evaluation will be conducted at the end of the project to assess the impact of the project. The participatory methods will be applied that will include the PRA, beneficiary assessment and stakeholders consultative meeting. Moreover, MWAWODE coordinator will compile the findings and develop the report that will be shared to stakeholders of the project. These to include: the donor, the beneficiaries and other partners.
7.0 Sustainability of Development Activities
The programme will provide training and capacity building for the elderly caring orphans from the community on self-employment project design and management. The training, will enable the elderly people to identify and start productive micro-projects for income generation activities, In addition to that the MWAWODE will facilitate and give loans to the elderly people at the beginning as a revolving fund The loan will be given under simple terms to allow repayment.For funding the project proposal will be shared to Help Age International so that they can fund the project. Help Age International organization mission is to work with and for older people in Tanzania to achieve a lasting improvement in the quality of their lives.
7.1 Managerial Sustainability:
The project will be managed under the normal MWAWODE structure. The Executive Secretary’s Office of MWAWODE will be the leading agency for the programme implementation, and have overall responsibility for carrying out activities. The project will be incorporated into MWAWODE strategic plan of which one of its strategic objectives is to support elderly people to realise their social economic development through providing soft loans for income generating.Elders themselves will be involved in all stages of the project implementation from planning of the activities and monitoring. Both men and women will be involved.In addition to that MWAWODE for project sustainability will provide training on initiating and managing micro project to elderly people. From the skills acquired elderly people will be able to initiate and manage micro project for their income generation activities.Moreover a Training of Trainers on parenting and caring OVC will be provided to the MWAWODE members by the CED student so that they will be able to facilitate training on parenting skills to elderly people after the CED student have graduated.The Mwananyamala Development Committee will be consulted to include the elderly people support interventions into the Ward community development plans that will also forwarded to the Kinondoni Municipal council level to set aside some funds to support elderly people and orphans in Mwananyamala.
Indicators for the project sustainability will include:
- Number of elderly people accessing loan
- Number of micro project initiated and managed by the elderly people
- Number of orphans that are attending schools
- % of orphans that are supported by elderly people for their social economic development
Participatory monitoring methods will be applied. These includes: PRA, interviews and Focused Group Discussions.
The capacity enhancement on social economic and parenting skills for elderly people caring orphans have the potential to contribute significantly to the wellbeing of orphans. It is the responsibility of all stakeholders to ensure that support of orphans is taken in the tradition institutionalized way of caring orphans from the family, community and government level. The social economic enhancement of the elderly caring orphans is the viable and sustainable intervention for the development of orphan’s social economic wellbeing.