Monday, February 2, 2009

The effectiveness of tools/instruments of development in preventing and resolving conflicts at community and national levels:

1.0. Introduction:
Conflict occurs between people in all kinds of human relationships and in all social settings. Because of the wide range of potential differences among people, the absence of conflict usually signals the absence of meaningful interaction. Conflict by itself is neither good nor bad. However, the manner in which conflict is handled determines whether it is constructive or destructive (Deutsch & Coleman, 2000). It is often said that there can be no development without peace, and no peace without development. It is widely recognized that one of the major elements of strategic peace building is a strong and equitable socio-economic foundation. In this perspective it should be understood that, most of the good things people always yearn for in life generate conflicts either because they are in short supply or because they are badly managed (UNECA, 1994).
Therefore, development as a means to sustainable peace building should undertake activities that address the underlying causes of conflict. These activities includes: good governance; equitable distribution of resources, civil law and order, fair and free elections and observance of human rights. Promoting peace and security in the 21st century requires a fundamental shift in how we respond to the challenge of violent conflict. The priority must be to prevent it from occurring and thereby avoid the massive human, environmental, and economic cost of war. The emphasis should be on promoting human security, justice and people-centered development and generally good governance. Preventive measures aims to create environment where people and governments elect nonviolent means to achieve greater justice, sustainable community economic development and human security (Lee,1991).

1.1 What is conflict?
Conflict is defined as an incompatibility of goals or values between two or more parties in a relationship, combined with attempts to control each other and antagonistic feelings toward each other (Fisher, 1990). The incompatibility or difference may exist in reality or may only be perceived by the parties involved. Nonetheless, the opposing actions and the hostile emotions are very real hallmarks of human conflict. Conflict has the potential for either a great deal of destruction or much creativity and positive social change (Kriesberg, 1998). Therefore, it is essential to understand the basic processes of conflict so that we can work to maximize productive outcomes and minimize destructive ones.
Another definition is by Harry Webne-Behrman, (1999) who defined conflict as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns. A conflict is more than a mere disagreement - it is a situation in which people perceive a threat (physical, emotional, power, status, etc.) to their well-being. As such, it is a meaningful experience in people's lives, not to be shrugged off by a mere, "it will pass. Participants in conflicts tend to respond on the basis of their perceptions of the situation, rather than an objective review of it. As such, people filter their perceptions and reactions through their values, culture, beliefs, information, experience, gender, and other variables. Conflict responses are both filled with ideas and feelings that can be very strong and powerful guides to our sense of possible solutions.

1.2 Sources of Conflict:
Early reviews in the field of conflict resolution identified a large number of schemes for describing sources or types of conflict (Fink, 1968; Mack & Snyder, 1958). One of the early theorists on conflict, Daniel Katz (1965), created a typology that distinguishes three main sources of conflict as : economic, value, and power. Economic conflict involves competing motives to attain scarce resources. Each party wants to get the most that it can, and the behavior and emotions of each party are directed toward maximizing its gain. Union and management conflict often has as one of its sources the incompatible goals of how to slice up the “economic pie”.
Value conflict involves incompatibility in ways of life, ideologies – the preferences, principles and practices that people believe in. International conflict (e.g., the Cold War) often has a strong value component, wherein each side asserts the rightness and superiority of its way of life and its political-economic system. Power conflict occurs when each party wishes to maintain or maximize the amount of influence that it exerts in the relationship and the social setting. It is impossible for one party to be stronger without the other being weaker, at least in terms of direct influence over each other. Thus, a power struggle ensues which usually ends in a victory and defeat, or in a “stand-off” with a continuing state of tension. Power conflicts can occur between individuals, between groups or between nations, whenever one or both parties choose to take a power approach to the relationship. Power also enters into all conflict since the parties are attempting to control each other.
It must be noted that most conflicts are not of a pure type, but involve a mixture of sources. For example, union-management conflict typically involves economic competition, but may also take the form of a power struggle and often involves different ideologies or political values. The more sources that are involved, the more intense and intractable the conflict usually is.
Another important source of conflict is ineffective communication. Miscommunication and misunderstanding can create conflict even where there are no basic incompatibilities. In addition, parties may have different perceptions as to what are the facts in a situation, and until they share information and clarify their perceptions, resolution is impossible. Self-centeredness, selective perception, emotional bias, prejudices, etc., are all forces that lead us to perceive situations very differently from the other party.
Lack of skill in communicating what we really mean in a clear and respectful fashion often results in confusion, hurt and anger, all of which simply feed the conflict process. Whether the conflict has objective sources or is due only to perceptual or communication problems, it is experienced as very real by the parties involved.
1.3 What is conflict resolution?
Conflict resolution can be defined as a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict. The term "conflict resolution" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term dispute resolution or alternative dispute resolution. Processes of conflict resolution generally include negotiation, mediation and diplomacy. The processes of arbitration, litigation, and formal complaint processes such as ombudsman processes, are usually described with the term dispute resolution, although some refer to them as "conflict resolution." Processes of mediation and arbitration are often referred to as alternative dispute resolution.
1.4 Principles and stages of conflict resolution:
Conflict resolution is limitless and it is impossible to prepare a recipe for resolution that will fit every occasion. Conflict may be on any scale from an individual to entire states and no one can be an expert on all forms of conflict resolutions The most important is to keep in mind some basic principles and stages of conflict resolution to follow while working on conflict resolutions. The basic principles include:
• Paying attention- the person and the problem must receive total attention.
• Listening- This requires total focus and concentration
• Reassurance- Show that the argument is being understood and includes the use of open questions.
1.5 Conflict resolution stages:
In order to come up with a better conflict resolution there is a need of going through some stages that include:
• Background- The need to understand the history and the issue relevant to the problem
• Planning- developing the framework of a plan that is positive, achievable and relevant
• First meeting- show empathy and knowledge of the issue; introduce for discussion the approach that might be adopted.
• Subsequent meetings – Emphasize any success achieved during discussion and as a result, plan for future meetings
• Final meeting- production of agreed report, with assurance of continuing support. framework of a plan that is positive achievable and relevant
2.0 Evaluation on effective of instruments/ tools of development in preventing and resolving conflict at Community and National.
With the above background this paper intends to evaluate the effectiveness of the following tools/ instruments of development in preventing and resolving conflicts at community and national levels. The tools includes: Community Social Capital Opportunities; Resource Redistribution; Legislation and Observance of Human Rights; Participation, Governance and Civil Society Organization; Technical and Technological Development; Small and Medium Scale Enterprises and Political and Economic Liberalization.
2.1 Community Social Capital Opportunities.
There are a number of definitions of social capital that may be considered for use in a framework for measuring social capital. These definitions are as follows: Putnam, Leonardi and Nanetti (1993) defines social capital by pointing out features of social organization, such as trust, norms or reciprocity, and networks of civil engagement, that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating co-coordinated actions for mutual benefit. The World Bank (2000) defines social capital as the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. And the World Health Organization (1998) point out that Social capital represents the degree of social cohesion which exists in communities. It refers to the processes between people which establish networks, norms and social trust, and facilitate co-ordination and co-operation for mutual benefit". In addition to that Narayan (1997) also defined social capital as the rules, norms, obligations, reciprocity and trust embedded in social relations, social structures and society’s institutional arrangements which enable members to achieve their individual and community objectives."
OECD (2001) described social capital as "networks, together with shared norms, values and understandings which facilitate cooperation within or among groups.
Therefore from the above and any other definitions that define what social capital is and what it does. It seems that in most of the literature agree on what social capital does, than what it is. It is widely agreed that social capital facilitates mutually beneficial collective action. The concept of social capital implies to the resources available in and through personal and community networks. These resources include information, ideas, leads, business opportunities, financial capital, power and influence, emotional support, even goodwill, trust , and cooperation. The “social” in social capital emphasizes that these resources are not personal assets; no single person owns them. The resources reside in networks of relationships rather than the property of any one individual, whereas some other forms of capital (human, produced economic and natural) can either belong to or be appropriated by individuals or companies. Also it is important that social capital is produced by societal investments over time and efforts, but in a less direct fashion than is human or produced economic capital.
Social capital is the result of historical, cultural and social factors which give rise to norms, values and social relations that bring people together in networks or associations which result in collective action. Social capital also differs from some of the other forms of capital in that it increases if used, through reinforcing the networks, norms and values, and decreases if not used. It takes a lot of positive effort to be built up incrementally, but can be quickly diminished.
Social capital allows community members to resolve collective problems more easily. People often might be better off if they cooperate. Moreover, social capital greases the wheels that allow communities to advance smoothly. Where people are trusting and trustworthy, and where they are subject to repeated interactions with fellow citizens, everyday business and social transactions are less costly. Furthermore, social capital improves community awareness in many ways in which community members fates are linked. People who have active and trusting connections to others – whether family members, friends, or fellow bowlers – develop or maintain character traits that are good for the rest of society. When people lack connection to others, they are unable to test their own views, whether in the give or take of casual conversation or in more formal deliberation. Without such an opportunity, people are more likely to be swayed by their worse impulses. The networks that constitute social capital also serve as conduits for the flow of helpful information that facilitates achieving goals.
2.1.1 The effectiveness of social capital in resolving conflict in community and National.
Though there is no universal definition of social capital much attention has been paid to the formal networks in the community and formal forms of social engagement, such as that occurring through civic associations, religious and spiritual groups, political parties, sports clubs, self help groups, unions and the like. However, the informal social networks that operate in a community such as social interaction between neighbors, groups of friends and informal interest groups are also important components of social capital. Social capital may also provide insights into society by recognizing the value of ordinary daily interactions in strengthening communities. Social capital is part of a move to increase the profile of the private domain of family life, voluntary work and unpaid household work and the contribution of these to social and economic well being and community building.
In A case of Sukuma tribe they have been portraying and utilized social capital in various ways portraying its role on how individuals in a community can work cooperatively to achieve shared goals and to deal with difficulties for a long time. These included economic, security, and social activities such as wedding and burial ceremonies.
In economic activities Sukuma tribe do and used to have networks, groups and clubs for farming and cultivating activities that involved community members to work together in cultivating farms from one household to the other in turns in a form of self help basis without any payment on top of food that they eat . By doing that they were able to cultivate big farms hence high production of cash and food crops in absence of tractors. Not only that during the farming they used to farm while drumming and singing this was the way of portraying their culture and tradition of unity, belief and trust among the community members hence prevent any conflict among the community as they have unity.
Moreover through networks, trust and having values, beliefs and cultures encourages individual to balance their own self interest with the good of the community. social capital potentially provide valuable insights into the social networks and links that individuals and communities have, and importantly how these networks and links can be utilized to individual and the community alike. A case of sukuma community through the significance of formal group membership with shared social norms such as togetherness with trust enabled sukuma community to establish and maintained saving and credit societies (ifogong’ho) long time ago before the formal saving and credit and financial institutions were established in Tanzania. Community members were able to borrow money from their traditional saving and credit organizations regardless of having security or collateral. The money borrowed was used to solve family economic and socially problems and it was paid back after they have solved the family problems. The trust and togetherness enabled this system to prevail up to date. The community has stipulated some rules that if some one violates him/ she was punished according to the rules in the community. Among of the punishment was to exclude the family from all community social and economic activities eg if one member of the family would die community member would not attend the burial ceremony until he or she repay the fine. In practice of these rules made the community members to abide to the norms and togetherness of the community.
In addition to that the importance of social capital comes into play when communities have to deal with conflict, problems or change. A community with high accumulations of social capital will be able to manage difficulties while one with low levels will manage less well. This is likely to be because collective action involves the use of norms and networks in situations where individuals might otherwise be reluctant to be co-operative or socially engaged. A case of sukuma community in Mwanza way back in the late 1980s there was a problem of insecurity between the sukuma and Masai neighboring community whereby Masai community used to steal cattle from sukuma community. Police were not able to control the situation as the number of Police was limited and they were not able to reach the rural areas due to poor infrastructure and transport. Sukuma community through their traditional leaders (ntemi) the grandson of N’gwanamalundi the hero of sukuma tribe guided by the community shared norms, values and beliefs the community established tradition security force army that was known as (sungusungu) to fight and restore cows that were stolen by the Masai and any other robbers in the community. All men (basumba) and unmarried women were to be members of the traditional army and whenever there was any robbery in the community everybody was supposed to participate in the rescue of the robbed cows. In this way the community managed to restore peace and no more cattle stealing by Masai is taking place in sukuma area regardless few occasions.
The success and the impact of tradition army (sungusungu) in Mwanza and Shinyaga area success in handling the insecurity in the community led to Tanzania government to call for and encouraged communities to establish the traditional army in the whole country which now the Police are encouraging community involvement in security matters ( ulinzi shirkishi)
2.1.2 Challenges in social capital as a conflict resolution tool:
All in all there are some challenges in the use of social capital as a tool in conflict resolution. As it has been discussed in the paper social capital is likely to be difficult because collective action involves the use of norms and networks in situations where individuals might be reluctant to be co-operative or socially engaged. Among of the factors is the change of technology and advancement of development that has lead to migration and mix of culture. People are moving from one place to the other looking for social economic development. For example you find now in Mwanza and Shinyanga where used to be a region for only Sukuma tribe now there other tribes coming from all over the country who do not belong and believe to sukuma culture, norms, beliefs and rules, you find to be difficult for them to join hands with sukuma for example on farming and security matters. The way of farming of those other tribes is quite different compared to that of sukuma.
In addition to that in order to maintain social capital also can be a challenge as it changes with time as social capital will be enhanced if used, through reinforcing the networks, norms and values, and decreases if not used. It takes a lot of positive effort to be built up incrementally, but can be quickly diminished. A case of sukuma as of now the type of traditional army that used to be in late 1980s to 1990s is not the same of the one of to date. The first one was more of sukuma traditions and norms everything was practiced in sukuma language i.e. meetings, songs and punishments while today as of mixture of tribes and traditions has forced the the traditional sukuma sungusungu not to work as it used to be. Today Sungusungu is not officially recognized among the security forces by the Tanzania security act/ law. Whenever the sungusungu get a culprit they are supposed to take him or her to police station for further action as they do not have the mandate to punish the culprit as they used to do in the past.
All in all despite the myth of individualism, and the change of social economic political, globalization, life style and way of living is taking place in the world, Tanzania being one of them, Social capital is an essential part of achieving personal and community success, a happy and satisfying life as it helps individuals and community members at large to deal with difficulties socially, economically and politically. Social capital is crucial for sustainable development and a powerful tool for making social change. Mutual trust, networking, shared values and norms, are very important in campaign and advocacy which are used in creating social change.
The peoples’ centered distribution of resources for development is a starting point for attention to alleviate persistent poverty in any country. When public resources are used to the advantage of one group over another, friction results. An unfair budget that persistently neglects the needs and interests of a group of stakeholders can generate conflict. In Tanzania, it is reiterated that mobilization of marginalized groups including, rural poor, women and youth has often not received adequate attention. Mobilization of finances from domestic sources needed a fully reformed financial system which could also support domestic investments. The financial sector reform in Tanzania has also not yet reached this stage (ESRF, 2002).
An efficient and vibrant Financial Services for rural poor, women and youth, contributes much to economic development. It mobilizes savings and allocates them to investments by private entrepreneurs. It also screens borrowers, manages risks, and operates the payment and settlement systems. And it ensures that dynamic parts of the economy are well funded (WB,1995:123).The General Assembly, in its resolution 52/194 of 18 December 1997, noted that, in many countries micro credit programmes have proved to be an effective tool in freeing people from poverty and have helped to increase their participation in the economic, social security and political processes of society. This could allow them to be more self-reliant, create employment opportunities, and, not least, engage women in economically productive activities. Micro-Credit services are more effective than other types of investment in channeling resources to the rural poor and vulnerable groups including poor women (Jazairy, 1994, p.103). It is based on the recognition that the latent capacity of the poor for entrepreneurship would be encouraged with the availability of small-scale loans and would introduce them to the small-enterprise sector. These institutions create deeper and widespread financial markets. Land reform laws also discriminate against women. Customary laws of inheritance at times pass land through male heirs. (Jazairy, M., Panuccio, T. 1992,p 202).This results to conflict between men and women on land distribution.
Governments are called upon to review national legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks that restrict the access of people living in poverty, especially women, to credit on reasonable terms; to promoting realistic targets for access to affordable credit, providing incentives for improving access to and strengthening the capacity of organized credit systems to deliver credit and related services to poor people and vulnerable groups; and to expanding financial networks, building on existing networks, promoting attractive opportunities for savings and ensuring equitable access to credit at the local level. The support to farmers can also be in terms of resources for agro-research and credits (non-political gifts) (Likwelile, 1994, P. 223). The possibility of combining savings and lending operations in some form of credit union organization should always be explored (UN,1995).This can create sustainable rural development hence a peaceful agrarian population (85% of Tanzania population).
2.3.0 Redistribution of Wealth through Foreign Aid and debt relief.
Most foreign aid is designed to meet one or more of four broad economic and development objectives: Firstly, to stimulate economic growth through building infrastructure, supporting productive sectors such as agriculture, or bringing new ideas and technologies, Secondly, to strengthen education, health, environmental, or political systems, Thirdly, to support subsistence consumption of food and other commodities, especially during relief operations or humanitarian crises, and fourthly, to help stabilize an economy following economic shocks.
Wikipedia defined Aid or "international aid", "overseas aid", or "foreign aid", especially in the United States as “the help, mostly economic, which may be provided to communities or countries in the event of a humanitarian crisis or to achieve a socioeconomic objective” Foreign aid, whether in the form of loans or grants, in cash or in kind, is conceived of as a transfer of resources from rich to poor countries. It is believed to supplement the low levels of domestic savings in poor countries thereby enabling them to enhance their rates of investment. Subsequently, rates of domestic savings and economic growth are accelerated leading to a reduction in the level of poverty (Osman, 1998 ).
2.3.1 The effectiveness of redistribution of Wealth through Foreign Aid and debt relief in resolving conflict in community and National.
There is no universal agreement in development literature to which type of assistance is most effective than the other. All of them have positive and negative effects. It all depends on the country and the aid provided. Among of the factors that can contribute to positive impact of foreign aid is that countries with economic and political stability have great chances of benefiting and producing good results when assisted. Kruger.O, Michalopoulos.C and Ruttan.V (1991) explain that countries that are politically stable and have social order are more likely to develop than those that have experienced instability.
Furthermore despite the broader objectives of aid, economic growth has always been the main yardstick used to judge aid’s effectiveness, with more aid expected to lead to faster growth. But at a very broad level, there is no apparent simple relationship between aid and growth; some countries that have received large amounts of aid have recorded rapid growth while others have recorded slow or even negative growth at the same time. While on the other hand some countries that have received very little aid have done very well, while others have not. Countries like Korea and Thailand and Botswana have recorded rapid growth compared to other African and Latin America countries.
All in all on positive side on the role of foreign assistance in conflict resolution has often been effective in meeting its goals in helping countries with respect community economic development hence avoid conflict among the community and nation at large. A case is Tanzania that has been one of the African countries that has been benefiting from foreign aid through the increase of funds on its budget to provide public services such as education, health facilities transportation systems, clean water and poverty eradication. Donor countries through multilateral organizations such as IMF, USAID, JICA, SIDA DFID NORAD etc have supported Tanzania through different types of foreign aid i.e. humanitarian and development aid. For example Tanzania is one of those countries, which the HIV prevalence rate is not going down. According to the country profile (2007) the prevalence rate among adult’s ages from 15-49 is 6.5 %. People who were HIV positive at the end 2005 were 1.4 million. Children orphaned because of AIDS at the end of 2005 were 1.1 million. Through the humanitarian aid Tanzania is receiving global fund by USAID supervised by Ministry of Health and Social welfare and NGO s supporting Orphans and Vulnerable Children. The global fund is supporting orphans and vulnerable children with mosquito nets; scholastic materials and building houses. The fund also is supporting the availability of ARVS for people who are HIV positive free of charge. The support for free ARVS has changed lives of many. Very few patients could have been able to afford buying ARVS. Salvation Army Tanzania and the like being among of the many Non Government Organization that are receiving the funds and making the distribution of orphans and vulnerable support in the country.
2.3.2 Challenges on redistribution of Wealth through Foreign Aid and debt relief in resolving conflict in community and National.
Researches on the other hand have identified that Aid cannot enhance poverty alleviation and hence viable Conflict resolution among community and Nation. Aid cannot foster increased savings, tax revenue or exports; neither can it result into economic growth. IMF and other aid provider institutions normally attach tough conditions to aid it provides to Developing countries. The implementations of these conditions, implicitly embodied in most of the programs normally lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and civil strife’s among the recipients. Bauer (1991) argues that aid may distort the political life of the recipient countries. In most cases Aid that is transferred to the government of those countries help to increase the government’s power and resources instead of the local community. It has also been argued that a lot of government to government aid has not been effective because it supports strategically leaders in the government and has enabled some regimes rulers to divert money to other, nonproductive activities that are not for the community and country economic growth or benefit.
Foreign aid has been misallocated and misused. Funds that were aimed at assisting country for development activities were used in quite different activities to maintain the administration and management operations. Likwelile, Luvanda, Mashindano and Nyoni(1994) are of the opinion that aid will neither foster economic growth nor poverty alleviation. For example a case of Tanzania government is spending a lot of funds on administrative and operational activities by buying vehicles that are expensive (Toyota land cruisers) that would have been used to construct classrooms hence allow more children to join secondary schools from the poor community, instead the government is asking its citizen’s to contribute for classroom construction a case of Dar es salaam region.
In addition to that aid in various ways has contributed to community not to apply their local resources, initiative and self-determination in solving their problems. The high flow of aid funds during the cold war era led to a dependency syndrome portrayed by many developing countries. Countries at large were not struggling to raise its economy through internal resources as far as they are sure that they will get assistance from foreign country.
In 2003 Tanzania was the second largest non-European recipient country after Afghanistan. Under the 9th EDF allocations reach 393.8 million€. (, accessed 14th January 2008). The Tanzania 2007/ 2008 budget is largely covered by foreign support that is at the level of 38% (Mwananchi of 4th November 2007) which in actual sense these can be raised locally through resources and taxes it has within the country that include minerals and agriculture products if well managed.
Likwelile et al (1994) pointed out “foreign aid enables governments, which in most cases crave for popularity, to increase spending without putting much effort in taxi collection. In Tanzania, while foreign aid was at an average of 15% in 1974 – 75 GDP deficit increased from an average of 4.3% in 1972 – 73 to average of 9.1% in 1974 – 75. (Likwelile, 1994, P. 220). This can be evidenced during the 2nd phase (1985 to1990) of the ruling Government of Ali Hassan Mwinyi when the government was not doing well in Tax collection Foreign aid may thus lead to the increase in the size of government and budget deficit”. It was not until the third phase of Benjamin Mkapa when it struggled hard to collect taxi and being able to repay debts.
In addition to that since about half of all aid is not gifts, but loans, aid has greatly increased the debt burden of the countries, and servicing the loans creates a great foreign currency problem for country which result the cut of funds for development activities to service loans. The case of introduction of cost sharing policy in social services ie education, health etc in Tanzania that creates exclusion to vulnerable groups and a lot of conflict are being experienced a case of Higher learning institutions where parents are required to contribute for the fees whereby the majority are not able to make the contribution.
All in all foreign Aid has both positive and negative effects to conflict resolution among community and the country. Aid can be effective to support the recipient community if it is well utilized by the recipient country. It requires a country to have systems in place and political will that facilitate proper use of aid for the benefit of the local community. Honest and capable government is an important component for foreign aid assistance to the country. In its absence, government officials may pursue policies that would damage the community economic development hence conflict simply because those policies benefit the ruling class and others with political and economic power

2.4.0 Legislation and Observance of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaimed by the General Assembly in 1948, (Articles 1-30) and Constitution of the URT Section iii, Article 12-24 set out basic rights and freedoms to which all women and men are entitled among them the right to life, liberty and nationality; to freedom of thought, Association, conscience and religion; the right to work and to be educated; the right to food and housing; and the right to take part in government. These rights are legally binding by virtue of two International Covenants, to which most States, Tanzania inclusive, are parties.
2.4.1 Effective of Building peace through Legislation:
The observance on human rights deliberated through legislation is one of the major tools to conflict resolution in community and Nation. This includes:
Firstly, the freedom of information that can be guaranteed by parliaments through appropriate legislation. This assists to create an environment of openness and trust-building, in a context where fundamental freedoms and minority rights are protected. By assuring that minority groups are not discriminated against, and that they have official channels to seek redress of grievances, legislation can set a framework for peace (AWEPA, 2005). Also in order to achieve true accountability, (essential for peace building) parliaments need to be pro-active in ending corruption and providing for the independence of the judiciary
Secondly, respect for human rights including the rights to life, to peace, to development, to freedom of association, of speech and of belief, equality and non-discrimination for all, and the promotion and protection of the rights of women, of children, and of all minorities and indigenous peoples is essential for building sustainable peace. In a well established or consolidated democracy, national human rights institutions exercise their functions usually as part of a wider network of domestic machinery, including courts and specialized tribunals.
Furthermore, in democratizing states, national human rights institutions play a more central role in conflict resolution as they provide a viable forum for the investigation and resolution of human rights complaints in countries where the judicial system is weak, politicized, slow or otherwise incapacitated. For example, in 1994, the Council set up a second tribunal to hear cases involving accusations of genocide in Rwanda. The Rwanda Tribunal in 1998 handed down the first-ever verdict by an international court on the crime of genocide, as well as the first-ever sentence for that crime.
In addition, a national human rights institution may be able to develop a stronger human rights culture in the state in transition, and thereby contribute to the democratization process hence avoid conflict among community and Nation.
2.4.2 Challenges Building peace through Legislation:
All in all there are challenges that are in the application of the legist ration and observance of human rights as a tool for conflict resolution, some of them includes:
• High rate of corruption among nations where by corrupted people may jeopardize poor people rights hence create conflict
• Human rights institutions have no power on Government decisions many cries on human rights violation are all over the world but nothing is taking place a case of Zimbabwe and the like
Therefore there is a need of ensuring that all programmes and policies that support constitutional, judicial and legislative reform also promote gender equality; stepping up training on the rule of law and transitional justice; and developing further indicators of good governance hence there is peace and no conflict among community and Nation.

2.5.1 Community Participation
Freire (1998) Participation is not only about people. It is a process where planners and change agents must take part. He further argues that, development organizations need to discover problems with people, but also allowing potentials for further action and reflection. Save the children (2003) as the process of allowing Children and youth to take part in the decision of their affairs”
Participation occurs at all stages in the development cycle: in research or situation analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation – an interactive process of ongoing dialogue between members of the public, key stakeholder groups, technical professionals, and local decision makers. Can not happen effectively in a single meeting, particularly in a formal public hearing, where each person has limited time to present their opinion, Community participation happens throughout the process, not just once.
Active community participation is a key to building an empowered community and a critical to community success. In addition, participating communities achieve greater citizen satisfaction with their community this achieved through following principles: In participating communities, many people are involved in the community's activities and are open to involvement by all groups.
Secondly, responsibilities are divided up so that the special talents and interests of contributing organizations are engaged. Power and responsibility are decentralized; conduct their business openly and publicize it widely.
Thirdly, citizens are well informed about the community's work and about their opportunities for personal involvement in meaningful roles and there is no such thing as a bad idea all ideas are treated with respect and welcomed as a source of inspirations with potential value for the entire community and encourage citizens to offer their best for the common good.
Fourthly, participating communities make no distinctions among various groups and types of personalities who offer themselves to community involvement. All persons are actively welcomed, regardless of color, age, race, prior community involvement, level of education, occupation, personal reputation, handicap, religion, or any other factor. Furthermore, participating communities do not sit by passively, waiting for a diverse group of citizens to present themselves. They realize that past discrimination and other factors can stop people from stepping forward, and they actively reach out to all citizens to encourage their participation.
Finally, participating communities operate openly and with an open mind. They are not controlled by any single organization, group, or philosophy, and their leadership is used to facilitate discussion of a diversity of viewpoints, rather than to push its own agenda. Leaders are not ego-driven but focused on operating a high-quality, open decision-making process.
Community participation not only does it lead to developing true democratic processes, but studies show that it also leads to higher rates of resource acquisition and use, better results, higher levels of volunteerism, and a brighter community spirit. In short, participation is the soul of an empowered community hence no conflict among community and nation
2.5.2 Challenges in community participation as a tool for conflict resolution:
There are certain things that can hinder community participation, when countries’ political and legal structures do not encourage or give room for community participation. There is too much bureaucracy such that people can easily give up even when they are willing to participate for development that involves community participation or involvement. Furthermore rigid and pre-set expectations when community participation is triggered entirely from within the community, the community leadership understands the community's customary priorities and ways of organizing itself. In contrast, external facilitators that of Government and NGOs that come to work with communities are often primarily motivated by their strong sense of urgency about achieving their preset objectives and timeline. They are likely to be frustrated by what they perceive to be a lack of progress. At the same time, community members can be irritated, offended or simply confused by the expectations of the facilitators. For example most of government and donors funded project do have pre-determined life spans of initiatives. Many community projects have a pre-planned project design imposed on them without the wide participation of community members. Typically, such a design has a specific schedule, including a fixed end-date and rigid reporting requirements. This builds inflexibility into the project from the start and frequently imposes an unrealistic pace on it. Inflexible planning often cannot adapt to events that are highly important to community members.
Moreover incomplete participation or representation in any initiative, there is always a risk that community leaders or spokespersons whether traditional or external will not represent the whole community, but instead will focus on their own concerns or agendas. At the same time, certain groups within the larger community whose participation can be highly important to community economic development may be marginalized or ignored due to culture and classes in the community.
All in all participation of community is a viable and sustainable tool for conflict resolution. Ordinary people in conflict-affected communities are the main stakeholders of peace. They should be involved in conflict resolution to develop comprehensive agreements to address conflict generating issues. Conflict resolution should promote human security by addressing issues of good governance and equitable development within a participatory framework.
A failure to ensure effective political participation is often one of the root causes of conflict. Those who feel excluded may try to defend their interests through other means, sometimes through violence. Strategies to promote effective participation must be rooted in efforts to end discrimination and actively promote equality (
2.5.3 Good Governance for sustainable peace
The concept of good governance is broad. It includes much more than fighting corruption.”(Joseph,2008). Former UN Secretary-General Annan stated that .good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development. For example a recent study by ECA(2005),underscored the need for improvement in such areas as tax evasion and corruption; reform of the police and military; and independence of electoral commissions. It called for urgent action to strengthen parliaments, preserve judicial autonomy, improve public sector performance, support the development of professional media, encourage private investment and decentralize service delivery.
Researchers and governance stakeholders have shortlisted six core principles for good governance in enhancing growth and community economic development as a tool for conflict resolution. These includes:
• Participation: the degree of involvement by affected stakeholders.
• Fairness: the degree to which rules apply equally to everyone in society. Fur
• Decency: the degree to which the formation and stewardship of the rules is undertaken without humiliating or harming people.
• Accountability: the extent to which political actors are responsible to society for what they say and do.
• Transparency: the degree of clarity and openness with which decisions are made and implemented.
• Efficiency: the extent to which limited human and financial resources are applied without unnecessary waste, delay or corruption.
The framework for implementing policy is very important. Day-to-day management of government operations affects the impression and compliance citizens have not only with individual departments but often the regime as a whole. In other words, how policy-implementation is structured constitutes an important aspect of governance. With regard to such key functions as (i) collecting revenues, (ii) providing public services, and (iii) regulating the economy the government should ensure the Community needs and especially those of the poor and vulnerable groups are taken care (Brieing,2006). All put together, are among the components of good governance. Challenges on absence of good governance as a tool for conflict resolution:
In absence of good governance there is the potential for conflict violence, instability, and ultimately state failure is deeply influenced by unhealthy institutions that govern the provision of security, manage political competitions, regulate economic life, and address social needs. These can fuel discontent through repression, exclusion, corruption and inefficiency. When the above causes are in place, events like elections, natural disasters, riots, corruptions, assassinations can trigger the outbreak of full-scale conflict.
Sanga, (2008) noted that, “in July 2007, members of Parliament raised fresh concerns over the scandals in the power sector, including the PCCB report on the RDC deal. The PCCB criticized the legislators for their demands to probe into the power deal, saying the issue was under its jurisdiction. IMF has instructed the government to appoint an accredited firm to audit the Bank of Tanzania's accounts. Parliament has demanded a parliamentary probe of the allegations, but the Ministry of Finance has rejected the idea”.
2.5.4. The Effectiveness of Civil Societies as a tool for conflict resolution.
The concept of civil society, though highly popular and much revived in recent years, remains intensely contested. Accordingly to the conventional notions prevalent in the social sciences, "Civil society" refers to the space in a given society that exists between the family level and the state level. According to Gellner, civil society is not only modern but also based on strictly voluntary, not ethnic or religious associations between the family and the state.
Informal associations or activities help in forming civil society. The sites of civic interactions range from generally predicable to highly particular and culturally specific. The predictable sites are neighborhood, a village commons, the playground, the halls for entertainment ant community functions. Groups interaction is not confirmed to them, however, and may also mark some culturally specific sites, the festival venues where people not only participate in a religious activity but also build connections for secular purposes such as politics, the sidewalks where those returning from work habitually walk together are talk, not simply about the weather but also about organizational structures in the workplace, markets, films, festivals, and politics. According to Anheier and List, civil society is “the sum of institutions, organisations and individuals located between the family, the state and the market in which, people associate voluntarily to advance common interests.”16 It is a buffer zone that is strong enough to keep the state in check, thereby preventing it from becoming too powerful and dominant. Together with the state and the market, civil society is one of the spheres that interface in the making of democratic societies.
CSOs have a broad range of roles from relief and development, to local conflict resolution, to advocacy and civic engagement, to nonviolent accompaniment. They have strong capacities to support the rehabilitation, healing and reconciliation needs of survivors of conflict.
The importance of CSOs is an institutional expression of civil society, are important to the political health of virtually of all countries, and their current and potential contributions to the prevention of deadly conflict, especially mass violence within states, is rapidly becoming one of the hallmarks of post-Cold war era. Intra-state conflicts undermine the states in which they occur, and the conventional international strategies and mechanisms to resolve interstate conflicts i.e. diplomatic efforts for mediation and reconciliation are ineffective It has therefore been pointed out that they “can be handled more readily by unofficial interventions of CSOs. It has also been observed that:
In addition, civil society groups seek to reduce the influence of forces promoting exclusionary policies or violence. They could help reduce the appeal of those trying to reignite conflict, assist in building national consensus on the design of post-conflict structures and programmes, and prepare local communities to receive demobilized soldiers, refugees and internally displaced persons. In short, they can give a voice to the concerns of the marginalized (Tripathi and Gündüz, 2008). A case of TPO in Northern Uganda In summary Civil Societies have five key functions : generating the social basis for democracy; promoting political accountability; building social trust; reciprocity and networks; creating and promoting alternatives; and supporting the rights of citizens and the concept of citizenship.
One example of active CSOs is, The Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC) which is a world-wide civil society-led process to generate and build a new international consensus on peace building and the prevention of violent conflict. The complexity, scale and diversity of conflict mean that no single entity, on its own, can ensure peace instead a comprehensive network of relationships and actions including the role of civil society organizations are needed (UN, 2005).

2.6.0 Technical and Technological development;
Technology is recognized as a major driving force in the globalization process. It’s central in determining the degree of competitiveness of nations. The vast majority of technologies required to reduce poverty, add value to natural resources, and upgrade the technological proficiency of local industry. Technical and technology development in the country supports for poverty alleviation among community members as it creates more employment and production. In absence of poverty minimize conflict among the community. The problem is that these technologies are not widely used in many developing countries. Therefore there is a need for capacity building at community level up to country to use existing technologies. On other hand, capacity building programs have important gender dimensions and implications. It is important to ensure that boys and girls, men and women, have equal opportunities to study math and science, engineering, and other technical and vocational subjects. This will minimize gender imbalance in technical know how hence no conflict between male and female.
Poverty is one of the major causes of conflicts in the world for this reason every possible measure should be taken at national and international level to unleash society from vulnerability to conflict. In Tanzania efforts toward poverty alleviation are cantered in science and technology, investment promotion development as indicated in policies which are analyzed here.
Therefore designed programs should aim at producing intermediate level of experts in science and technology with good mix of theory and practice, at the same time the curricula and programmers should be more flexible and adaptable to, contemporary changes in science and technology worldwide in the area identified by the policy.

2.7.0 Effectiveness of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises
Small Business Entrepreneurship haves been seen as a hub in generating income for the majority of urban dwellers with no formal paid employment. In Tanzania, entry into business entrepreneurship is usually not seen as a problem. One can start small business at any time and in any place. However, the development of this informal sector has been profoundly characterized by two parallel phenomena which are perhaps character. One is the increasing politicization effort encouraging people to engage in Small and Medium Entrepreneurship (SME). This has led to the proliferation and mushrooming of small business most of which are in the form of petty trading, at least everywhere in the urban centres. The second is the parallel increase in events suggesting prevalence of crime and bureaucratic hurdles which affect SME and counter reaction from the small traders. While the second can be characterized as due to the increasing repressive action by city authority over vendors, the counter reaction behaviour of itinerant and small traders toward city authority is also evident in most urban areas. Generally, the sector is characterized by constant tension and feuds between small traders and urban authorities.
Development makes everyone more secure (UN 2004).In regard to internal, intra-state conflicts, it is advisable that the increased provision of investments, services and infrastructure needed to achieve the MDGs occur on an equitable basis, and that attention be given to the needs of minorities, marginalized regions and, where relevant, former combatants, refugees and internally displaced persons.
Poverty eradication through SMEs is essential to achieving human security and dignity. Many conflicts are deeply rooted in social, economic and cultural disparities, especially in the context of unequal access to economic and social power and resources. Violent conflict impedes development prospects. According to the Millennium Project report, of the 34 countries furthest from achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 22 are emerging from conflict.
(Kikwete,2005),pointed out that prevention and sustainable peace building are therefore necessary to achieve the MDGs. SMEs are essential to the ‘path out of poverty’ for many developing countries
In addition, the globalization process would not be sufficiently inclusive if large sections of society such as women, youth and indigenous populations were excluded from development at the national level. The provision of social, physical and economic infrastructure for the rural population is important. Inclusive globalization processes needed to be based on an inclusive national development strategy. The economic empowerment of SMEs of the otherwise weak and vulnerable sections of society is central. At the base of economic empowerment is the creation of decent employment opportunities in wage/salary employment and in self-employment. Kikwete (2005), explaining the role of SME he said, SME produce jobs, process agricultural products, and to reduce post-harvest loses.
2.7.1 Challenges of Small and Medium Enterprise as a tool for conflict resolution:
Firstly, most people enter into Small Business Entrepreneurship probably because of
lack of adequate formal education and alternative payable employment
Secondly, the small business vendors are not certain of their safety and security.
They believe that provided one is serving in this troubling sector, it is just a matter of time for any vendor to succumb to criminal related intricacy.
Thirdly, destruction of properties, petty theft is the common form and type of
Crime facing entrepreneurship and small business proprietors
Fourthly, lucky of collateral (especially among women), access to technology, environmentally friendly materials, credit, information and training, can act as barriers to social and environmental improvements for these SMEs.
Fifthly, development policies that fail to take into account the specific needs and structural marginalization of some sectors of society may increase the risk of structural violence and armed conflict(Likwelile,1994).
Lucky to market access for SMEs products, that is needed to ensure that trade facilitated growth of output and productivity and rising standards of living. Countries like Tanzania have been made to pursue trade liberalization to the detriment of output and employment. In some sections of local industry, the developed countries denied access to their markets in some areas where countries like Tanzania had a comparative advantage (ESRF, 2002).
2.8.0 Effectiveness of Political and Economic Liberalization as a tool for conflict resolution:
Since independence, Tanzania, like many other African countries has experienced a remarkable political and economic transition. Formerly a one party state with a planned or command economy now is a multiparty democracy with a mixed market-oriented/ liberalized economy. Tanzania has, undergone a series of economic reforms, including currency devaluation, tariff reduction, domestic tax reforms, and increased investments in infrastructure. The country’s economic performance under these structural adjustment efforts has improved substantially in many respects and in some areas has not improved agriculture sector being the one.
Potential for violence, instability, and ultimately state failure is deeply influenced by the strength and health of institutions that govern the provision of security, manage political competitions, regulate economic life, and address social needs. Economic reform has been prescribed as the best cure for Africa's current economic malaise. But economic reform raises expectations which, if not fulfilled, may widen the gap between rich and poor which, in turn, can generate conflicts between the haves and the have-nots.
Political and Economic liberalization has the following positive strength as a tool for conflict resolution:
Firstly, one of the political and economic liberalization system characteristics is that the economy is on the individual or private ownership where labor resources, natural resources, capital resources (e.g., equipment and buildings), and the goods and services produced in the economy are largely owned by private individuals and private institutions rather than by government. This private ownership is combined with the freedom to negotiate legally binding contracts permits people, within very broad limits, to obtain and use resources as they choose. This type of economy has promoted the economy of Tanzanian’s individuals and private companies as they now own the resources, run businesses and increased their investments. For example people like the Bakheresa are running flour business that used to be owned by a state through the National Milling Corporation. Companies like IPP media owned by Reginald Mengi and the like. In the market economy individuals are now able to own equipments and buildings of any value which was not a case during the socialist economy. The system allows increasing their entrepreneurship and investment among Tanzanians individuals hence poverty eradication at individual level.
Secondly, another characteristic is that of competitive motive which controls the market. The tendency of competition in Tanzania has benefited Tanzanians as it creates competition among the goods producer and service suppliers. Competition is evidenced in various products and supply of service. For example companies dealing with soft drinks soda Coca cola and PEPSI are competing for customers. Companies dealing with beer ie Serengeti and Tanzania Breweries are competing to produce different varieties of beer which gives better choice to consumers. Cell phone companies ie Vodacom, Tigo, Celtel and Zantel are competing to such that they are reducing service charges to customer. Through competition Tanzanian’s have benefited as they have good choice of quality at reduced price, variety of commodities and services and there is no shortage of commodities and services compared to the period of the socialistic/ planned economy where Tanzania used to have one company producing beer and one company for telecommunication service provider that of Tanzania Telephone Company Limited and transportation dominated by National transport Company ie KAMATA and UDA hence there was no choice or alternatives among consumers of the products and service.
Thirdly, there is an opportunity for the buyers and sellers freely to enter or leave any market. Buyers and sellers act independently in the marketplace. This system has benefited Tanzanians as people have freedom of choosing of being customer to a product or service of their choice. For example on communication service people can decide any time to be a customer of any communication service provider of their choice. The companies includes tigo, Celtel, Vodacom while during the socialistic/ planned economic system the country used to have only one company that of Tanzania Telephone Company Limited (TTCL) owned by the Government. People had no option regardless of poor services that were supplied by the TTCL. People can make a choice on buses to board for their journey.
On the other hand producers also have a choice on what they want to produce. A case of Tanzania agriculture sector farmers now have a choice on what to produce. Take a case of Shinyanga community which used to be forced to plant cotton and sale it to state owned authorities i.e. Tanzania Cotton Authority the only authority that used to buy cotton which in most cases the price was low and sometime it delayed payments for the farmers. Through the market economy farmers from Shinyanga and Mwanza now have a freedom of and changed from growing cotton to rice which have the ready market and good price. Another case is that of coffee farmers of Kilimanjaro also some opted to uproot coffee plants instead they grow maize and tomato that have good price and ready market. Farmers are now benefiting their product due to freedom of entering and leaving the market for both
Fourthly, there is a motive of self interest whereby the "Invisible Hand" that is the driving force in a market economy is each individual promotes his or her self-interest. The entrepreneur’s motive is profit over the business. They try to achieve the highest profits for their firms while on the other hand workers want the highest possible wages and salaries and the owners of property resources such as building attempt to get the highest possible prices from the rent and sale of their properties. The system does not need official and government to deicide on price and profit margin. This is another merit for the market economy in Tanzania as individuals try to work hard to make profit from their business as they are not in control of the state or any authority as it is in the planned economy system where there are regulatory and price setting authorities which will not allow for maximum profit. Individuals and companies are able to set prices that will enable them to make profit. On the other hand consumers and the workers are getting the greatest satisfaction from their budgets as they can choose the type of employment that gives them highest possible salaries. People now can move from government to private organization or company and vice versa looking for well paid salaries depending on his or her qualification that enables them to have high purchasing power.
Fifthly, markets (goods or services) are the basic coordinating mechanisms no central planning is done by the government or authorities. A market brings buyers and sellers of a particular good or service into contact with one another. During the error of planned/ socialistic economy Tanzania used to have crop authorities that used to control and making coordination between buyers and sellers, Crop authorities included Cotton authority, Coffee authority, Tea authority and the like. These authorities used to have a lot of bureaucracy and inefficiency, giving low price to farmers such that farmers did not benefit on what they were producing. Through the market economy where there is no government or authorities control and coordination hence less bureaucracy and red tape, buyers and sellers are getting into contact with another directly and easily depending on the products, goods and service they sale or buy. For example growers and buyers of cereals e.g maize from Dodoma, Iringa and Sumbawanga do have a direct contact with Mohamed enterprise or Bakheresa who are the major milling and seller of maize flour in Tanzania. Farmers are getting good price through that direct contact instead of going through other coordinating authorities eg National Milling Cooperation (NMC) as it used to be in socialistic economy. At that period of planned/ socialistic economy if Bakheresa wanted to get maize have to buy from National Milling corporation where farmers would have sold their maize which resulted to high operational and administrative costs hence the price to the farmers was low while on other hand Bakhresa would sell the maize flour at high price to consumers as he bought it at high price from NMC
2.8.1 Demerits of political and Economic Liberalization as a tool for conflict resolution a case of Tanzania.
Firstly, there is a tendency of dependence on supply and demand theory has its disadvantages to small scale producers and consumers in Tanzania. This is more experienced in the agriculture products where during the bumper harvest the producers experience loss as they do lack storage and processing facilities for perishable products which they can store or process their products to wait for the period of high demand that will benefit from the increases of the price. For example during the harvest of farm crops eg fruits (pineapples, oranges mangoes) maize, rice etc the price goes down which make famers to get loss as they can not store and process to wait for the better price period.. While on the other hand when the products are scarce in the market consumers tend to suffer due to high price as the demand increases. This has been the recently experienced in a case of cement the price have gone up due to high demand of cement.
Secondly, the system is characterized by competition for the market, it give difficulties to small entrepreneurs due to poor technology and low capital. Small firms may be taken over by big companies. The majority of Tanzanian depends on agriculture which is not mechanized and well advanced. Farmers are using hand hoe such that they can not produce much to compete with big investors from other countries that have big capital and mechanized agriculture. This is experienced by the sugar cane farmers in Kilombero where small farmers are competing with big investors for the same market. Investors command the price as they have big harvest and good quality sugar. The same it applies to small entrepreneurs’ who are competing with big investors who have big capital such that they dictate price by selling at low price their commodities Small entrepreneurs’ are not able to compete as they do not have enough capital for competition. A case of Bakheresa who is in the business of ice cream, bread, chapatti as result small entrepreneurs such as food vendors (mama ntilie) can not compete with him as he sales at low price and big supply as a result the common people suffer. Chinese investors now are competing with local people such that the local industries are stagnant and are not making any progress. Interchick company has monopolized the market for chicken such that small scale poultry keepers are making loss as they do not have the market.
Thirdly, the system does not require coordinating organ between producers and consumer. It is the type of market (product and service) that connects and coordinates consumer and buyers. In such economy where there is no coordination mechanism, for rural communities the majority in Tanzania suffer and do not benefit from the system as they do not have a coordinating mechanism with the consumers, the coordination forums would look for good price and control the price in favor of the farmers. E.g. Farmers cooperatives used to coordinate and negotiate price on behalf of farmers for better price of their crops. But in the market economy instead of having the coordination mechanism farmers from the rural area are conned by middle men by giving them low price as they are unaware about the price in the market. For example at Kariakoo there are people who work as middle men ( dalali). These people make sure that there is no contact and communication between the farmers who bring their products and the buyers at Kariakoo. The middle men always make double profit by putting low price to the farmer and they hike the price to the consumer
Fourthly, under system where there is no control mechanism there is a tendency of investors or suppliers to supply poor quality products. A case now in Tanzania there is a lot of poor quality and fake products in shops i.e. TV sets, radio electrical products etc as a result people are buying commodities that are not equivalent to the price they give. Many cases of building burnt due to poor electrical installed material.
Fifthly, the system with no government control on the economy producers of good and services would seek to maximize profits, and may pay little attention to they cause pollution to air, water etc from their industries and whether the employees work in a safe and healthy condition and paid good salaries and whether the goods and service produced is of good quality. In Tanzania there many cases of industries that do not consider that for example many complains have been given by community around KTM textile industries in Mbagala Dar-es-Salaam on the polluting the stream around that area. Industries and mining in Lake Zone are polluting Lake Victoria hence there is always conflict between community and the industries.
Political and Economic Liberalization system that work on the assumption that market forces such as, demand and supply are best determinants of what is right for a nation’s well being. The economies that are rarely engage in government intervention such as price fixing, license, quotas, and import duties and subsidies provision has got both merits and de merits. For a country like Tanzania which of its majority citizen are poor. Small scale farmers and entrepreneurs still require the economic system that will be for the pro-poor community. Government need to have policies that will support and favors the poor to participate in the market oriented system otherwise will create classes in the society of “the have and have not” and a unequal distribution of wealth.
3.0 Conclusion;
Conflict resolution is limitless and it is impossible to prepare a recipe for resolution that will fit every occasion. Conflict may be on any scale from an individual to entire states and no one can be an expert on all forms of conflict resolutions. Development tools ie Community Social Capital Opportunities; Resource Redistribution; Legislation and Observance of Human Rights; Participation, Governance and Civil Society Organization; Technical and Technological Development; Small and Medium Scale Enterprises; Political and Economic Liberalization can be applied to prevent and resolving conflict at community and national . What is required is for Nations to put policies and strategies that will make use of the development tools for the benefit of the majority that includes the marginalized groups ie poor rural community including women, elderly people and children hence prevent and avoid conflict in the community and Nation.


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Strengths and weakness of methods or approaches for conflicts resolutions or bringing peace at the international and local levels.

I.0 Introduction:
Conflict occurs between people in all kinds of human relationships and in all social settings.Because of the wide range of potential differences among people, the absence of conflict usually signals the absence of meaningful interaction. Conflict by itself is neither good nor bad.
However, the manner in which conflict is handled determines whether it is constructive or destructive (Deutsch & Coleman, 2000).
Africa continued to be the region with the greatest number of conflicts. These internal conflicts pose a serious threat to economic development, especially for the poor African community members.
Empirical evidence has shown that conflicts can tear down levels of economic development that took decades to achieve. Also, for a long time after their termination the spin-offs of conflicts continue to limit economic growth, political, social, inequalities between groups.
Eight out of 10 of the Africa poorest countries are suffering, or have recently suffered, from large scale violent conflict. Wars in Africa countries have heavy human, economic, and social costs and are a major cause of poverty and under development. For example, it is estimated that 3% of the country's 1990 population is in most current conflicts, such as in the Sudan and the Congo. In short in the past 30 years Africa has been especially badly affected by war.
Conflict has the potential for either a great deal of destruction or much creativity and positive social change (Kriesberg, 1998). Therefore, it is essential to understand the basic processes of conflict so that we can work to maximize productive outcomes and find resolution to the destructive ones.
It is the intention of this paper to examine critically the strengths and weakness of different approaches for conflict resolution or bringing peace at the international and local levels. The paper is divided into four sections: The first section will dwell on the definition of conflict and conflict solution; second section will highlight the root causes of conflict; third section will discuss on methods and approaches on conflict resolution by sighting it strengths and weaknesses and finally recommendation and conclusion.
Various scholars have attempted to define conflict in different perspectives. Among them is (Fisher, 1990). Who defined conflict as an incompatibility of goals or values between two or more parties in a relationship, combined with attempts to control each other and antagonistic feelings towards each other. Another scholar is Harry Webne-Behrman, (1999) defined conflict as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns. A conflict is more than a mere disagreement - it is a situation in which people perceive a threat (physical, emotional, power, status, etc.) to their well-being. As such, it is a meaningful experience in people's lives, not to be shrugged off by a mere, "it will pass. Participants in conflicts tend to respond on the basis of their perceptions of the situation, rather than an objective review of it. As such, people filter their perceptions and reactions through their values, culture, beliefs, information, experience, gender, and other variables. Conflict responses are both filled with ideas and feelings that can be very strong and powerful guides to our sense of possible solutions.
According Galtung (1996) conflict could be viewed as a triangle with structure, attitudes, and behavior as its vertices. By structure, he means the conflict situation, the parties, and the conflict of interest among them. Conflict arises where the parties come to have incompatible interests, values or goals. He uses the term attitudes to refer to the tendency for the parties to see conflict from their own point of view, to identify with own side, and to diminish the concerns of others. Behaviors include gestures and communications, which can convey either a hostile or a conciliatory intent.
In addition, conflict occurs when two or more parties perceive that their interests are incompatible, express hostile attitudes, or take pursue their interests through actions that damage the other parties. These parties may be individuals, small or large groups, and countries, Interests can diverge in many ways: In another way conflict is generally defined as an interaction between interdependent people who perceive incompatible goals and who expect interference from the other party if they attempt to achieve their goal.
On the other hand Conflict resolution can be defined as a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict. The term "conflict resolution" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term dispute resolution or alternative dispute resolution. Processes of conflict resolution generally include negotiation, mediation and diplomacy. The processes of arbitration, litigation, and formal complaint processes such as ombudsman processes, are usually described with the term dispute resolution, although some refer to them as "conflict resolution." Processes of mediation and arbitration are often referred to as alternative dispute resolution.
3.0 Major causes of conflict:
Major conflict causes include political, economic, and social inequalities; extreme poverty; economic stagnation; poor government services; high unemployment; environmental degradation; and individual (economic) incentives to fight. For further clarifications these causes of conflict can be elaborated as follows:
• Group motivation: Since intra-state wars mainly consist of fighting between groups, group motives, resentments, and ambitions provide motivation for war. Groups may be divided along cultural or religious lines, by geography, or by class. Group differences only become worth fighting for, however, if there are other important differences between groups, particularly in the distribution. In addition to that political leaders and belligerents in Africa have made increasing use of ethnic hatred. Such abuse prolongs conflict, creates long term divisions that reduce the effectiveness of peace building efforts. For example conflict in Sudan with people in the south being heavily deprived by the northern part of Sudan which is dominated by ethnic group of Arabs and Islamic have been fighting due to ethnic, cultural religious and economic factors.
• Inequality among community members:
Inequality between groups is probably the foremost cause of conflict in Africa and other parts in the world. It is inequality between groups- rather than individuals-that increases the prospects of violent conflict; unemployment, lack of education and population pressure this is mostly in countries with high level of unemployment among men and where male educational levels are low face a far higher risk of conflict. Throughout Africa, factional conflict has drawn on a pool of marginalized or socially excluded young men, for example, the conflict in Liberia was fought by socially marginalized young men
• The artificial boundaries created by colonial rulers as they ruled and finally left Africa had the effect of bringing together many different ethnic people within a nation that did not reflect, nor have the ability to accommodate or provide for, the cultural and ethnic diversity in such a short period of time. The freedom from imperial powers was, and is still, not a smooth transition. The natural struggle to rebuild is proving difficult. For example, the war between Uganda and Tanzania in 1998 to 1999 can be sighted as an example where Idd Amin claimed part of Kagera to belong to Uganda.
• Failure of the social contract This derives from the view that social stability is based on a hypothetical social contract between the people and the government. People accept state authority so long as the state delivers services and provides reasonable economic conditions employment and incomes. This has been experienced in Congo, Liberia and sierra Leon and also in Tanzania in areas where mining is taking place Buzwagi, Tarime etc there is a lot of conflict between the local people and the mini companies as locals do not benefit anything from the mine
• Land disputes in communities: This point to environmental degradation as a source of poverty and cause of conflict. For example, rising population pressure and falling agricultural productivity may lead to land disputes. Growing scarcity of water may provoke conflict. A case of Masai pastoralists and Farmers in Kilosa
• Economic reform programs policies: The standard SAP policy package calls for cuts in government spending, privatization of state owned enterprises and the opening up of the economies of developing countries to foreign investment. After almost two decades of “adjustment” in Africa, the result has been raising income and wealth inequality with more and more populations being pushed below the poverty line. Among other conditions, SAP policies advocate: Privatization – SAP policies call for privatization of state owned enterprises to private owners, often foreign investors. Privatization is typically associated with layoffs and pay cuts for workers in the privatized enterprises; Cut in government spending – Reductions in government spending frequently reduce the services available to the poor, including health and education services, as well as farm subsidies; Imposition of user fees – Many IMF and World Bank loans call for the imposition of “user fees” – charges for the use of government-provided services like schools, health clinics and clean drinking water. For very poor people, even modest charges may result in denial of access to services. Under SAP, countries undertake a variety of measures to promote exports, at the expense of production for domestic needs. In the rural sector, the export orientation is often associated with the displacement of poor people who grow food for their own consumption, as their land is taken over by large plantations growing crops for foreign markets; Trade Liberalization – The elimination of tariff protections for industries in developing countries often leads to mass layoffs. In Mozambique, for example, the IMF and World Bank ordered the removal of an export tax on cashew nuts. The result: 10,000 adults, mostly women, lost their jobs in cashew nut-processing factories. Most of the processing work shifted to India, where child laborers shell nuts at home. There is little doubt that the impact of some of these measures has had a profound effect on the provision of basic social services to the poor who are always at the receiving end of some these policies.

4.0 Approaches and methods for conflict resolutions:
Regardless of the level of conflict, there are different methods/ approaches to deal with conflict that exist. Conflict can result in destructive outcomes or creative ones depending on the approach that is taken. If conflict can be managed creatively there is possibility of finding solutions that are mutually satisfactory to both parties. Sometimes this will involve distribution of resources or power that is more equitable than before. All in there is no universal conflict resolution that can work on all forms of conflicts resolutions. Some of the conflict resolutions as follow:
4.1 International approach:
This is the approach that is supported by the United Nations Security council whereby one government is assigned to negotiate on behalf of other countries to facilitate the process of finding solution to the conflicting sides in the country
Strength: The approach United Security council fund the conflict resolution process
Limitation: The approach is that the country responsible for conflict resolution can not be familiar with the culture and traditions of the country in conflict take a case whereby United State of America and Britain both countries are working to bring peace in Afghanistan and Iran. However it has taken years to bring peace in these countries due to the fact have a quite different culture and belief from that of Islamic and Arabic. USA and Britain are dominated by Christianity. Instead of working on conflict resolution they are busy with influencing there culture which definitely the opposing group will not buy in what the Americans and British are trying to suggest for the conflicting sides,
4.2 International laws: These are laws that have been stipulated put in place by the United Nation Security Council those guid nations not to cause problems to other countries. For example it is prohibited one Nation Army cross beyond its country boundaries. The laws stipulate the penalty that if such a Nation enters other country by force will be obliged to pay all damages that might occur during the war. A case of Uganda through Idd Amin regime he evaded Tanzania. After the war Uganda was penalized to pay Tanzania a certain amount of money as penalty for evading Tanzania.
The Strengths: The approach allows for uniform regulation and penalty for the whole world
Limitation: Big Nations like United Sates of America do not abide to these rules a case of Vietnam, Iran and Afghanistan where by United States of America evaded those countries using their army to remove the governments in power by force and replacing with governments that buy in their policies and ideologies.
4.3. Regional Integration: This is where region organs like SADC, Africa Union, ECOWAS, and Great Lakes are used to protect the region and work on conflict resolution in conflicting countries in the region. This is taking place for Zimbabwe case whereby SADC is in upper front trying to facilitate the post election conflict resolution. Africa Union under the chairmanship of President Kikwete in collaboration with the former UN Secretary Kofi Annan also played a role of conflict resolution for Kenya post election and other conflicting countries
Strength: The approach is that Regional International are in a better position to bring conflict resolution compared to that of the international one as they belong to the same region such that they more familiar with the issues , culture in the conflicting countries
Limitations: limited resources for managing the conflict resolution mission being at the level of funding negotiation meeting and peace keeping troops as most of the nations that forms the Africa regional forums are faced a problem of poverty within their countries such that most of the countries fails to contribute to the regional forums.
Secondly is the acceptability of the region forums by the conflicting countries. Take a case of Zimbabwe President Mugabe was not ready to respect the late SADC chairperson President Mwanawasa of Zambia
Thirdly not all Nations belong to the same Regional Network such that they will not abide to some of the conflict resolutions suggested by certain regional network
4.4: Balance of power through the use of army whereby the fighting groups are withdrawn their weapons by the peace keeping troops or through negotiation of sharing powers a case of Kenya whereby the opposing parties shared powers by President Mwai Kibaki from the ruling part take on the Presidential position and the opposition party Raila Odinga takes the Prime Minister position.
Strength: The approach facilitate more democracy in sharing the power all parties are responsible to the people there is no way that one party can point a figure to the other as both of them are in the government.
Limitation: Negotiations can take long while people are suffering a practical example is that of Zimbabwe where by President Mugabe up to date is not ready to share powers with the opposition party such that people are suffering and dying on hunger and diseases.
4.5: Third party: Through diplomatic or embassy offices or influential and prominent people. A case of Burundi, whereby the late Mwalimu Nyerere; For Kenya Koffi Annan, Ex President Benjamin Mkapa and Gracie Marchel facilitated the post election conflicts and recently Obassanjo is continuing with negotiation in Congo DRC
Strength: The third part is knowledgeable and is acknowledged through their experience with the situation prevailing in the conflict countries such that they can be able to bring the conflict resolution
Limitation: The third parts need to be knowledgeable, experienced and accepted by both conflicting parties
4.6 Traditional or Africa approach: This approach is the opposite to that of the international one whereby there is a use of force and commands that does not work in Africa culture. Africa context believe that before intervention there is a need of dialogue and working with attitude, mind setting and behavior change of the conflicting sides. The use of third part, elderly and traditional leaders is highly appreciated in Africa tradition approach. The practical example is the process of trying to change the attitude of Tutsi who are in conflict with the Hutu. The Tutsi believe that they are born to rule therefore they would like to rule the Hutu for ever which is not fact. Not only that are but also now are trying to put their dominance or leadership to all countries in the great lake region. These include Museveni in Uganda, Nkunda in DRC and Paul Kagame of Rwanda. The introduction of English use from French, use of Swahili as a National language This will help to unite people and remove the French legacy that contributed to the conflict.
Strength: By changing the attitude, mind set and behavior of the conflicting side is more sustainable one like the Masai now are changing their attitude on cows which originally they believed all cows belonged to them such that they used to cause conflict by steeling the Sukuma cows with the notion that all cows belong to them. Following awareness and attending education and change of profession from pure pastoralists to others now Masai have changed their attitude and mind set on cows and the conflict between them and Sukuma occur in few cases or no more happening.
Limitation: The approach takes long time to change the attitude of people, take a case of the Tutsi and Masai it has taken decades and still some elements of their attitudes still prevails among them. In addition the traditional approach depend much on third part which requires somebody with more thinking, spiritual belief, psychology and understanding of the issues. These people with this experience are few. The few to mention can include. Late Mwalimu Nyerere, Nelson Mandela, Kofi Annan
In addition to those conflict resolution approaches other literature proposes the following approaches:
Firstly, the win-lose approach: People learn the behavior of destructive conflict early in life- competition, dominance; aggression and defense permeate many of our social relationships from the family to the school playground. The “fixed pie” assumption is made, often incorrectly, that what one party gains, the other loses. The strategy is thus to force the other side to capitulate. Sometimes, this is done through socially acceptable mechanisms such as majority vote, the authority of the leader, or the determination of a judge. Sometimes, it involves secret strategies, threat, innuendo – what ever is acceptable, i.e. the ends justify the means.
Secondly, lose-lose approach: This strategy is exemplified by smoothing over conflict or by reaching the simplest of compromises. In neither case is the creative potential of productive conflict resolution realized or explored. Disagreement is seen as inevitable, so therefore why not split the difference or smooth over difficulties in as painless a way as possible. Sometimes, this is indeed the reality of the situation, and the costs are less than in the win-lose approach, at least for the loser. Each party gets some of what it wants, and resigns itself to partial satisfaction.
Thirdly, the win-win approach: This is a conscious and systematic attempt to maximize the goals of both parties through collaborative problem solving. The conflict is seen as a problem to be solved rather than a war to be won. This method focuses on the needs and constraints of both parties rather than emphasizing strategies designed to conquer. Full problem definition and analysis and development of alternatives precede consensus decisions on mutually agreeable solutions. Communication is open and direct rather than secretive and calculating. The win-win approach requires a very high degree of patience and skill in human relations and problem solving.
All in all as discussed above both approaches have strength and challenges. The challenges includes: Honest in political negations; Some of the leaders are puppets; Power monger leaders; un-fair process; failing to attack the real problem; Communication break down;

Conclusion and recommendation:
Conflict is an investable fact of human existence. If we work to understand and manage it effectively, we can improve both the satisfaction and productivity of the community social relationships. Therefore the paper recommends the following:
• Resolution should be based on traditional conflict resolution methods.
• Local leaders should be key players in resolving conflict.
• Technical and socio-economic studies should be complemented with traditional approaches and knowledge.
• It is essential to consider different interests.
All in all there is no one conflict resolution approach or method that can fit every occasion. Conflict may be on any scale from an individual to entire states and no one can be an expert on all forms of conflict resolutions. What is required is to understand the issue and make positive contribution to conflict resolution.

2. Harry Webne-Behrman, (1999) the Practice of Facilitation 1998).
3. Fisher, R 1985 Sources of conflict and Methods of conflict resolution International Peace and Conflct resolution School of International Service The America University
4. Galtung (1996)
5. sighted on 4th January 2009
6. sighted on 2nd January 2009
8. on 3rd January 2009
9. Sighted on 2nd January 2009
10. sighted on 22nd December 08
13. sihted on 2nd January 2009
14. Wangoola, ‘Cattle Rusting and Conflicts in N.E Uganda